World Sugar History Newsletter

Number 6, May 1985

In this issue:

  1. Research in Progress
  2. Request for Information
  3. Book Reviews
  4. Archive Report
  5. Conference Reports
  6. Papers Received
  7. 1986 Norwich Conference
  8. Notice
  9. New Publications of Interest

This version of the World Sugar History Newsletter, Number 6, May 1985, has been edited for the purpose of on-line display. The contents remain complete.


[In addition to the lists given in issues nos. 1-5.]

Richard A. Lobdell, Faculty of Arts, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
"British West Indies: Imperial British Sugar Policy, 1880-1940."

Pablo A. Marinez, Admon. de Correos no. 20, Apartado Postal no. 20-409, Mexico 20, D. F.
"West Indies; A Comparative Study of the Peasantry and the Socio-political Consequences of its Development in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic."

Christian Schakenbourg, UER Economie et Gestion, Universite de Picardie, 80025 Amiens, CEDEX France.
"French West Indies: History of the Sugar Industry in the French West Indies, 1848-1914."

Guy Pierre, Apartado Postal 20-665, Delegacion Al. Obregon, 01000 Mexico, D. F.
"Haiti: The Crisis of 1929 and the Develeopment of Capitalism in Haiti."

Ann Midwood, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Glasgow.
"Cuba: Jamaican Labour Migration to the Cuban Sugar Industry, 1900-c.l935."

Alejandro Garcia, Ave. 231, #21026 e/ 210 216, Fontanar, La Habana, Cuba.
"Cuba: Study of the Commercial Sector in Cuba, 1900-1920."

Donald W. Attwood, Dept of Anthropology, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec H34 2T7, Canada.
"India: Origins and Social Impact of Sugar Cane and Sugar Production in Western India, as well as cooperative sugar factories in the same region."

Marc Daniel North-Coombes, Dept. of Econ. Hist., University of Natal, King George V Ave., Durban, 4001 South Africa.
" Mauritius Bitter-Sweet Harvest: Economic Change and Class Conflict in Mauritius, 1911-1948," (thesis in progress).

Edward Duyker, "Glenn Robin", 167 Princes Hwy., Sylvania, New South Wales, 2224, Australia.
"Mauritius and Australia: Contributions of Mauritians to the Development of the Australian Sugar Industry in the 19th and 20th Centuries."

Joe Daniels, Informatlon Services, CSR Limited, P0 Box 483, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia.
"Australia: Origin and Development of Sugarcane Agriculture and Manufacturing."

Nicolas Rivero, Organization of American States, Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A.
"South America and the Caribbean: Technical and Strategic Evaluation of the Production and Marketing of Ethanol from Sugar Cane."

Leticia Gandara Mendoza, Escarcha 32, Mexico D.F., 01900.
"Mexico: The Nationalization of the Mexican Sugar Industry, 1920-1985. State Control of Markets, Factors of Production, and Sugar Producing Enterprises."

Arnulfo Embriz Osorio, Santa Maria 258, Col. Magdelena A., Mexico D.F., 09810 (Centre de Estudios Historicos del Agrarismo en Mexico).
"Mexico: Sugar and Social Movements in Mexico, 1920-1934."

Eduardo L. Menendez, Viena 141, Casa 4, Coyoacan, Mexico 21 D.F.
"Mexico: The Industrial Development of Cane Alcohol and its Economic, Political, and Social Dimension."

Alejandra Garcia Quintanilla, Ave. Itzaes 4499, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico CP97000 (Universidad de Yucatan).
"Mexico: History of Agriculture in 19th-Century Yucatan."

Gisela von Wobeser, Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas, UNAM, Torre de Humanidades I 8o, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 20 D.F.
"Mexico: The Sugar Industry of Colonial Morelos (Mexico), 1550-1810."

Beatriz Scharrer, CDA San Jeronimo 32, Co. San Jeronimo, Lidice, 10200, Mexico D.F.
"Cultivation and Processing Technology of Sugar Cane in Mexico during the Colonial Period and through the 19th Century."

Roberto Melville, Apdo. Postal 22-548, Mexico D.F.
"Mexico: The Development of Sugar in Morelos during the Porfiriato" (1979). Present work: "The Haciendas' Concentration of Land in the 18th Century."

Carlos Gonzalez Herrera, Saturnino Herran 132-5, Col. San Jose Insurgentes, Mexico, D.F. 03900.
"Mexico: Historical Revision of the Typology of the Sugar Producing Entities."

Richard A. Hawkins, Institute of Historical Research, Senate House, Malet St., London, WCIE 7HN, U.K.
"Hawaii: Economic and Social Change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1941."

Thomas Fock, Sperlstr. 6, 3000 Hannover 91, W. Germany.
"Britain-Germany: German Immigrant Labour in British Sugar Refining."


Dr. Edward Duyker (address above) is working on Mauritians in Australia and would like to hear from anyone who has any information on Mauritian-born sugar technologists and planters who worked in the Australian sugar industry. He would also like any biographical data on the following Mauritians associated with the sugar industry in the 19th and 20th centuries: Eleonard Adam, Augustin Despeissis, Adrien Despeissis, Albert A. Giraud, Thomy de Keating, Charles La Caze, and Charles Leon Burghez.


Clive Y. Thomas, Plantations, Peasants, and the State: A Study of the Mode of Sugar Production in Guyana (Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California; and Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1984). Pp. xviii, 214.

In this study, Thomas provides a lively account of the development of the Guyanese sugar industry from colonial times up to the present day. He begins with a historical overview which stresses the environmental specificity of the industry -- most sugar cane is grown on a small coastal strip of land which is below sea level and this has led to the emergence of a complex system of water control. He then discusses how slavery was replaced by indentured immigration which in turn gave way to the emergence of a free labour market during the twentieth century. Until the start of bauxite mining in the 1950s sugar was the most important activity in the economy and a single foreign firm grew to enjoy a position of overwhelming dominance in the industry. Booker McConnell Ltd. controlled 80 per cent of sugar output when it was nationalized in 1976. The central four chapters of the book discuss the rise of the company to transnational status; the declining relative contribution of the sugar industry to export earnings and employment opportunities since the 195Os; the nature of industrial relations on the foreign estates; and levels of profitability and the nature of technical change in the post-war period. Thomas controls his material well and achieves a rare blend of technical, economic, social, and political analysis. There follows chapters dealing with the small cane farming sector, nationalization of the foreign estates, the performance of the new state farms, and a conclusion in which the author outlines the characteristics of a more appropriate institutional framework for the industry.

The major themes of the monograph are familiar, but make depressing reading nevertheless: the unending struggle between estate owners and sugar workers/small farmers; the colonial legacy of ethnic divisions in the industry's labour force which underlie wider party political conflicts; the vulnerability of a small, poverty-stricken open economy to the vagaries of a tropical climate and the uncertainties of political patronage in the world sugar market; and high expectations of nationalization being dashed on the rocks of technical inefficiency and economic mismanagement once the industry falls into State hands.

Overall, this is a useful introduction to the sugar industry of Guyana for the book contains much empirical material which is very up-to-date. Indeed, the statistical series appear so good that it is unfortunate more use was not made of them. Estimates of industry supply response, the nature and extent of technical change, the effects of export instability, and the calculation of a returned value terms of trade index are just some areas which invite a more formal approach to data analysis. The implicit theoretical framework adopted is that of neo-Marxist dependency theory. Now, while this may have something to be said for it if one wishes to catch the broad sweep of economic, political, and social history over several centuries, it is a singularly inappropriate and clumsy instrument with which to search for answers to many of the crucial questions he raises towards the end of the book. Policy decisions concerning whether to expand sugar output or to achieve a greater degree of national self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs are likely to be more illuminated by such concepts as domestic resource costs or (dare it be said) comparative advantage, than they are by the mode of production. Similarly, his final discussion on the design of an optimal institutional structure for the industry would have benefited greatly from a careful and dispassionate evaluation of alternative organizational and juridical forms to be found in the sugar industries of other developing countries. The attempts to establish producer cooperatives and collective ownership in the sugar industries of both Cuba and Peru have not been conspicuously successful and these historical experiences should be faced before recommending that Guyana goes down the same road. In short, more comparative institutions and less world systems please!

C. D. Scott
London School of Economics

Francisco A. Scarano, Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico: The Plantation Economy of Ponce, 1800-1850 (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1984). Pp. 242. $21.50.

This work is a welcome addition to plantation literature both in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. It is a model of painstaking, careful research in archival and local sources. As such, it confirms once more the enormous value of municipal sources for reconstructing the past.

Scarano has made a number of contributions not only to recent Puerto Rican but also to Latin American and Caribbean historiography. His conclusion on the importance of slavery in the Puerto Rican plantation economy is a long way from the traditional view on the subject. He correctly demonstrates how in sugar municipalities such as Ponce, slavery was the predominant source of labour for sugar production up to the middle of the 19th century. Furthermore, Scarano shows convincingly that the illegal slave trade was mainly responsible for the steady growth in the number of slaves up to the 1840s. This could have happened only with the connivance of local and higher authorities in government. It was a public secret by the 1830s, for example, that the Spanish governor was receiving a certain amount of pesos for each slave illegally introduced in the island.

If the study of slavery is important, the chapters dedicated to the masters is another major contribution of the work. Further proof that the initial growth of the Puerto Rican sugar industry at the outset of the 19th century took place under foreign planters' control was not needed. However, Scarano has done what was sorely missing. He has identified planters by nationalities and places from which they originated. Moreover, he has traced the sources of capital brought by these planters. Thus, he has dispelled many misconceptions about this early period of the plantation economy in Puerto Rico. A case in point is the explanation concerning the apparent success of foreigners in running a sugar business. It has usually been asserted that foreigners had unusual skills and know-how or that they were just generally far superior to the creoles. The truth is simpler. Foreigners came with ample lines of credit which enabled them to establish themselves in the sugar business. Others laundered capital derived from the slave trade by investing it in sugar ventures, while still others took the easy road of marriage to become members of the sugar elite.

The importance of this work cannot be overemphasized. It joins a growing list of studies which are making possible a reinterpretation of the Puerto Risan past. It also contributes to the long-running and rich debate on the importance of the plantation system in shaping present Caribbean and Latin American societies. Since it is published in English, the book gains a wider audience for the Puerto Rican contribution to that debate.

Andrew A. Ramos-Mattei
Universidad de Puerto Rico

Bill Albert and Adrian Graves (eds.), Crisis and Change in the International Sugar Economy, 1860-1914 (Norwich and Edinburgh: ISC Press, 1984). Pp. 381. l9 maps. 61 tables. Illustrations. $16.80 and 12 pounds.

The editors have overseen the publication of nineteen papers, the presentation of which formed part of the international conference they organized at Edinburgh in 1982. To these contributions they have added a useful but regrettably brief introduction. The order of presentation is geographical - Europe, the Caribbean region, Latin America, and elsewhere (Egypt, the Portuguese Empire, Natal, Queensland, Hawaii); the substance of the papers is bewilderingly varied. Yet readers of the Newsletter know that the saccharophiles among us wax enthusiastic when confronted with any such potion, regardless of size or density -- as long as it has sugar in it.

This is not the place to review in any detail the contributions in Crisis and Change, even if the reviewer were competent to do so. But some papers merit particular notice, linked together as they are by their subject matter or by their geographical focus. Thus, for instance, Ramos Mattei for Puerto Rico, Scott for Cuba, Haraksingh for Trinidad, and Schnakenbourg for the Caribbean region in general (though with particular notice of the French Antilles) all concentrate on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the sugar industry was being transformed by the consequences of abolition, technical achievements unleashed in part by the success of beet sugar in Europe, and the blossoming of the contract/indenture solutions to Caribbean problems. Similarly, Gonzales and Albert both deal with the Peruvian labour supply for sugar, but Gonzales treats the period 1875-1900, concentrating on the Chinese, while Albert spans 120 years (1820-1930) in his treatment, discussing the association of slavery with sugar, and both native (Peruvian) and Japanese workers.

Sidney W. Mintz
The Johns Hopkins University



Tate & Lyle PLC has recently decided to establish a small sugar museum on its Thames Refinery site in Silvertown, London, to preserve some of the history of the company and the heritage of its workforce.

Primarily, the objective of this venture was to collect archives and artefacts relating to all parts of the group, both past and current members. However, it became increasingly apparent that the proposed museum would be recording not only the history of the Tate and Lyle families but also many general aspects of cane sugar set against a background of social, economic, and technological change as well as mergers, amalgamations, closures, etc., over a period of more than 100 years. A small sample of the diversity of materials is: the ledger that shows the wages of refiners workers between 1853 and 1857, the copy-letter book that tells us when Abram Lyle requested the telephone he installed at Plaistow Wharf in 1882, records giving the cost of feeding the horses that pulled the raw sugar barges, plans and drawings showing the course of technological change in sugar refining during the last century, and many items pertaining to dress and conditions over the years. It also became necessary to house some items relating to the agriculture of cane because Tate & Lyle expertise in many aspects of cane sugar has been much in demand throughout the world. One exhibit of interest is the working model of a sugar mill made by the apprentices of Tate & Lyle's heavy engineering subsidiary.

It will be seen that Tate & Lyle has an interesting story to tell. Sir Henry Tate, benefactor of the Tate Gallery in London and many other educational institutions, began life as a grocery's apprentice in Liverpool and then became the owner of several grocery shops. He went into cane sugar refining in 1859, specialising in cube sugar. On the other hand, Abram Lyle III, the originator of the famous Lyle's Golden Syrup, started his life as an apprentice lawyer, then followed this by becoming a shipowner in Greenock, Scotland. He decided in 1881 to enter the London Sugar Market using Lyle's Golden Syrup as his specialised product. He also became a public benefactor. In 1921 the Tates and the Lyles amalgamated and went on to fight, and win, an anti-nationalisation campaign. In 1954 they won a further victory when the House of Lords ruled that expenses incurred in fighting the campaign were wholly and exclusively for the benefit of the company and thereby tax deductable. It was during the fight against nationalisation that "Mr Cube" was born. He has since become a national figure.

A reconstruction of Henry Tate's Birkenhead Shop c.1850 is planned as part of the museum as many of the original items have been located. Even the cash book for all his shops, giving his weekly cash flow, has been preserved. The story of Lyle's Golden Syrup will also be presented with such items as hand syrup fillers designed by Oliver Lyle in 1910. Other larger permanent displays are also envisaged, together with smaller topical exhibits to be changed on a regular basis, for example, diet, health, and possibly a look into the future.

A small historical sugar library will be provided for the research student and any other interested individual or institution. Provision is also planned for a lecture room for teachers and their pupils, local educational groups, etc.

Structural work on the proposed museum building should commence early in 1985 and will become a reality in the not too distant future. In the meantime, enquiries for information are more than welcome and, indeed, have been steadily increasing since this project began, and has given reassurance that this is a worthwhile venture.

Ann Alford
Group Archivist
Tate & Lyle PLC
Thames Refinery, Factory Road, Silvertown
London E16 2EW
(Tel: 01-476-4455).


CRS Ltd.
Joe Daniels reports that there are some additional CRS archives maintained in the Corporate Archives at 1 O'Connell St., Sydney. They are mainly original letters of association and the backup documents used to produce the company history South Pacific Enterprise (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1956).


International Conference on Indian Labour Migration

Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Moka, Mauritius, 23-17 October 1984

We have not received a formal report on this meeting, but the following list of papers (sent to us by Daniel North-Coombes) gives a good idea of the wealth of material presented.

Kuska Haraksingh (Trinidad):
"Culture, Religion, and Resistance among the Indians in the Caribbean."

Daniel North-Coombes (South Africa):
"From Slavery to Indentured Forced Labour in the Political Economy of Mauritius 1834-1837."

Mohan Gautam (The Netherlands):
"The Role of the Symbols of Cultural Expression in Identity Formation Processes: The Case of the Indian (Hindustani) Community in the Netherlands and Surinam."

Jo Beall (South Africa)"
"Unwanted Guests: Indian Women in the Context of Indentured Immigration to Natal."

J. C. Jha (India):
"Early Indian Immigration into Mauritius."

Michele Marimoutou (Reunion):
"Les relations entre les engages indians et leurs engagistes reunionnais de 1860 a 1882."

Sahadeo Basdeo (Trinidad):
"Indian Involvement in the Politics of Labour in Trinidad during the Inter-War Years, 1919-1939."

Surendra Bhana (South Africa):
"A Historiography of the Indentured Indians in Natal: Review and Prospects."

K. S. Sandhu (Rep. of Singapore):
"Indian Immigration and Settlement in Singapore."

Bonham Richardson (USA):
"Man, Water, and Mudflats in Coastal Guyana."

B. E. St. J. Bastiampillai (Sri Lanka):
"Tribulation of the Indian Immigrants in Sri Lanka during the Period of Transition from Crown Colony to Free State, 1930-1948."

S. Arasaratnam (Australia):
"The Evolution of Meyalsian Society: Social and Cultural Aspects of Settlement."

H. R. Tinker (UK):
"Continuity between Slavery and Indenture."

Anirudhe Gupta (India):
"Suppression of the African Slave Trade and Indian Labour Immigration in the 19th Century."

Jean Bendist (France):
"Adaptation socioculturelle des immigrants indiens dans les iles francaises (Antilles Reunion)."

Singaravelou (France):
"East Indians in the Caribbean: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow."

B. Pachai (Nigeria):
"The Political Evolution of the South African Indian Community."

Surendra Gambhir (USA):
"Mauritian Bhojpuri: An International Perspective."

J. Manrakhan (Mauritius):
"An Examination of Certain Aspects of the Slavery Indenture Continuum of Mauritius, Including a Scenario that Never Was."

Ceder Kalla (Mauritius):
"The Provision of Education for Indians in Mauritius."

S. Reddi (Mauritius):
"Labour Protest among Indian Immigrants."

S. Peerthum (Mauritius):
"Forms of Resistance of Indian Labourers in the Initial Phase of Immigration."

A. D. Nirsimloo Anenden (Mauritius):
"A Sense of a Kind and a Sense of Difference."

R. Vivahsawmy (Mauritius):
"A Form of Liberation from Camp to Village."

International Symposium on Sugar in Latin America and the Caribbean: Technical Change, the International Market and the Sugar Economy, Historical Perspectives, and Current Problems

Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. January 28-31, 1985. (Sponsored by Azucar S. A de C.V., Centro de Estudios Historicos del Agrarismo en Mexico, FLACSO (Sede Mexico), Gobierno del Estado de Morelos, and the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos).

This conference was held in the state of Morelos, historically and still today one of the most important centres of Mexico's sugar industry. It was also the region which gave birth to the agrarian revolt of Emiliano Zapata. The venue was, therefore, absolutely perfect for such a meeting.

The sessions began with three papers which discussed the current world crisis in sugar, the problems experienced in Mexico, and the conditions of the industry in Morelos. The issues raised provided important points of reference for the subsequent historical discussions. The search for markets and improved efficiency, the need for state support, the social problems associated with production, and the seemingly continual air of crisis which today surrounds the industry all are familiar themes to historians of sugar.

The sessions devoted to the remaining papers were organized by either theme or country. This provided the opportunity for extremely fruitful interchange, the papers serving to stimulate wide-ranging debates over a number of central issues, among which were the timing and causes of technical progress, the link between this advance and social change, the formation of the sugar proletariat, and the effect on the industry of having to rely on particular kinds of markets. There were also sessions concentrating on Puerto Rico and Mexico, in which some of the questions raised in other papers were taken up and specific regional problems were also considered in some detail.

The meeting was a great success both in terms of the high quality of the individual contributions and the openness of the discussions. Everyone came away feeling they had learned a great deal. This all was made possible by the extremely painstaking and thoughtful organization of the entire conference by Dr. Horacio A. Crespo, who was assisted by Sabine Manigat, Enrique Vega Villanueva, and Carlos Gonzales. We were all overwhelmed by the warm and generous hospitality of our hosts. A visit was made to the Ingenio Emiliano Zapata in Zacapatec, the largest ingenio in the area. After an extremely informative tour of the entire enterprise conducted by the general manager, Ing. Alfonso Garcia Espinoza, we were treated to a marvelous lunch. The symposium was opened offically at the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, and to close the proceedings a fiesta, complete with a mariachi band, was given by the university and presided over by the Rector, Ing. Fausto Gutierrez Dragon.

I have never been to a conference which combined such a high degree of professional organization, excellent scholarship, and unstinting hospitality

Bill Albert

The papers (titles translated from Spanish) were:

Jose Antonio Cerro (Geplacea):
"The Cane Sugar Industry in Latin America: Its Situation in the Current International Context and Prospects."

Azucar S.A. de C. V.:
"Current Problems and Prospects for the Mexican Sugar Industry."

Manuel Enriquez Poy (Azucar S.A. de C. V.):
"The Influence of Technical Change in a Regional Sugar Industry during the First Half of the 20th Century: Morelos, Mexico."

Bill Albert (Univ. of East Anglia, UK):
"The Course of Technical Change in the Peruvian Sugar Industry, 1860-1940."

Michael Gonzales (Northern Illinois Univ.):
"The Social Consequences of Technical Change in the Peruvian Sugar Industry, 1880-1930."

Beatriz Scharrer (CIESAS, Mexico):
"Traditional Sugar Technology in Mexico during the Colonial Epoca and the 19th Century."

Donna Guy (Univ. of Arizona):
"La Refineria Argentina: the Limits of Technology in a Peripheral Market, 1889-1930."

Richard A. Lobdell (Univ. of Manitoba):
"British Officials and the Peasantry in the West Indies, 1842-1938."

Peter L. Eisenberg (Univ. Est. de Campinas, Brazil):
"Sugar and Social Change in Brazil Campinas, Sao Paulo, 1767-1830."

Alejandro Garcia (Univ. de Havana, Cuba):
"The Effects of the First World War on the Production and Sale of Sugar in Cuba."

Horacio Crespo (Univ. Auto. Est. de Morelos):
"The Mexican Sugar Industry and the Internal Market, 1875-1910."

Sabine Maginat (FLACSO, sede Mexico):
"Labour Migrations and the Formation of the Sugar Proletariat in the Caribbean, 1838-1920."

Pablo Marinez (Fac. Ciencias Politicas, UNAM):
"The Sugar Economy and the Peasantry in the Caribbean: The Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1868-1920."

Guy Pierre (UAM, Iztapalapa):
"International Commerce and the Development of Capitalism in the Dominican Republic, 1873/77-1929/33."

Andres Ramos Mattei (Univ. de Puerto Rico):
"La Central Aguirre Corporation: Change and Continuity in the Puerto Rican Sugar Industry, 1899-1914."

Francisco A. Scarano, (Univ. of Connecticut):
"Colonos and Centralistas in the Puerto Rican Sugar Economy, 1873-1934."

Roberto Melville (CIESAS):
"The Sugar Haciendas in Morelos: Old and New Problems."

Juan Jose Santibanez (FLACSO, sede Mexico):
"Peasant Mobilization and Competition in the Mexican Sugar Industry, 1920-1936."

Enrique Vega Villanueva (UAEM):
"The Sugar Industry and the Entrepreneurial Question: A Study of the Profitability of the Haciendas in Morelos, Mexico, 1880-1914."

Alejandra Garcia Quintanilla (Univ. Auto. de Yucatan):
"Sugar in the Yucatan up to the Middle of the 19th Century."

NOTE: The papers from this conference will be published within the year. A notice giving details will be given in the next Newsletter.


Yoshiko Negano-Kano, "The Structure of the Philippine Sugar Industry at the End of the American Colonial Period," Research and Working Papers Third World Studies, University of the Philippines Commodity Studies no. 3 , April 1981, pp. 42.

Yoshiko Negano-Kano, "Formation of Sugarlandia in Late 19th Century Negros: Origin of Underdevelopment in the Philippines," The Philippines in the Third World Papers Series no. 32, August 1982, pp. 28.
(For information on the above write: The Director, Third World Studies, Rm. 428, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Philippines, Dilman, Quezon City, Philippines).

Donald W. Attwood, "Capital and the Transformation of the Agrarian Class Systems: Sugar Production in Western and Northern India," to be published in Meghnad Desai, Susanne Rudolph, and Ashok Rudra (eds.), Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity (New Delhi: Oxford UP; Berkeley: Univ. of California Press).

Donald W. Atwood, "Class Interests and Changes in the Organization of Production in the Indian Sugar Industry: Impact of the Irrigation Frontier." (Submitted for publication; author's address above in RESEARCH IN PROGRESS).

Donald W. Attwood and B. S. Bavistar, "Rural Co-operatives in India: a Comparative Analysis of their Economic Survival and Social Impact," Contributions to Indian Sociology (n.s.), 18, 1 (1984).


We have had an extremely encouraging response to our recently announced conference on the interwar sugar economy. Papers offered so far cover a wide range of regions including Louisiana, Mexico, Cuba, Trinidad, Peru, Brazil, Germany, Argentina, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the French Caribbean. If you wish to contribute to the meeting to be held at Norwich between 1-4 September 1986, as soon as possible please contact Dr. Adrian Graves, Department of Economic and Social History, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9JY, Scotland.


Have you ordered your copy of

Crisis and Change in the International Sugar Economy 1850-1914?

A valuable reference book containing 19 regional studies, an introduction, numerous tables, maps, 381 pp.

A must for all students of sugar history! Order a copy for yourself - at least one copy for the library of your institution.

ONLY US $16 80 or 12 pounds (postage included).

ORDERS TO: Ms. Judith Sparks, School of Economic and Social Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK.

All the profits from this book will go to financing the continual publication of the World Sugar History Newsletter.


The long awaited study by one of the world's foremost authorities on the history of sugar will be published in June:
Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History Pp. 274. Elisabeth Siston Books/Viking, $20.00 (ISBN 0-670-6S702-2).
Published in Britain by Penguin Books, 14.95 pounds.

Morelos: Cinco Siglos de Historia Regional edited by Horacio Crespo. Pp. 464. Published by Centro de Estudios Historicos del Agrarismo en Mexico and Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (1985).
The book contains 25 papers given at a conference in Cuernavaca in Sept. 1985. Many of these deal with the history of the region's important sugar industry. For price and further details write Horacio Crespo, Apartado Postal 1159, 62000 Cuernavaca, Morelos, MEXICO

A major new work on the socio-economic history of the Peruvian sugar industry:
Michael J. Gonzales, Plantation Agriculture and Social Control in Northern Peru, 1875-1933 Institute of Latin American Studies. Latin American Monograph No. 62. (Austin: University of Texas Press). Pp. 235. Maps. Tables. Graphs. $28.99. ISBN 0-292-76491-x.

[A11 the books listed above will be reviewed in WSHN, no. 7]

World Sugar History Newsletter compiled by Bill Albert, School of Economic & Social Studies, UEA, Norwich; Adrian Graves, Department of Economic History, University of Edinburgh. A11 correspondence to Bill Albert, School of Economic & Social Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR7 7TJ, UK.