Heritage Language Variation and Change in Toronto
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These are references that we have found useful for the HLVC project. Here is an additional list of work on Faetar in the 21st century.


Berkowitz, J. 2003. Quantum Writing. Science Communication 3.1 [cited Sept. 20, 2008]. http://www.quantumwriting.com/newsletter/2003_n3-1.html.

Beszedits, S. 2016. Toronto's early Hungarians. Vasváry Collection Newsletter 106/256. http://www.sk-szeged.hu/statikus_html/vasvary/newsletter/16dec/toronto_hungarians.html .

Blondeau, H. & N. Nagy. 2008. Subordinate clauses in Montreal French and English. In Social Lives in Language: Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities, M. Meyerhoff & N. Nagy. (eds.), Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Blondeau, H., N. Nagy, G. Sankoff & P. Thibault. 2003. La couleur locale du français L2 des Anglo-Montréalais. In L'acquisition de la variation par les apprenants du français langue seconde. Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Etrangere, R. Mougeon. (ed.), 73-100. Paris: L'Association ENCRAGES.

Budzhak-Jones, S. 1994. Variable rule analysis of V/U alternation constraints in Canadian Ukrainian. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 1 (3):202-211.

Burton, M.W. & K.E. Roblee. 1997. A phonetic analysis of voicing assimilation in Russian. Journal of Phonetics 25:97-114.

Bybee, J. & P. Hopper. 2001. Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Choi, H.-W. 2003. Paradigm Leveling in American Korean. Language Research 39 (1):183-204.

Chumak-Horbatsch, R. 1987. Language Use in a Ukrainian home: a Toronto sample. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 63:99-118.

City of Toronto. 2007. Ward 23 Willowdale Profile. [cited Oct. 9, 2008] http://www.toronto.ca/wards2000/pdf/ward23_ethnocultural.pdf.

Crosswhite, K. 2004. Vowel reduction. In Phonetically-based phonology, B. Hayes, R. Kirchner & D. Steriade (eds.), 191-231. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Danesi, M. 1985. Ethnic Language and Acculturation: The Case of Italian Canadians. Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques au Canada 17 (1):48-103.

Di Giacomo, L. in prep. Phonetic and Phonological correlates of Canadian Raising. [tentative title]. MA thesis, Linguistics, University of Toronto, Toronto.

Fortier, A.-M. 1991. Langue et rapports sociaux: analyse des langues d'usage chez des Italiens de deuxième génération. Québec: Centre international de recherche en aménagement linguistique.

Fromont, R. & J. Hay. 2008. ONZE Miner 2008 [cited Sept. 25, 2008] www.ling.canterbury.ac.nz/jen/onzeminer/.

Guardado, M. 2002. Loss and maintenance of first language skills: Case studies of Hispanic families in Vancouver. Canadian Modern Language Review 58 (3): 341-363.

Guy, G. 1990. The sociolinguistic types of language change. Diachronica VII (1):47-67.

Guy, G. 2007. Variation and phonological theory. In Sociolinguistic Variation: Theories, Methods and Applications, R. Bayley & C. Lucas (eds.), NY: Cambridge. 5-23.

Guy, G. 1991. Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3 (1):1-22.

Guy, G. & C. Boberg. 1996. Inherent variability and the OCP. Language Variation and Change 9 (2):149-164.

Heap, D. & N. Nagy. 1998. Francoprovençal null subject and constraint interaction. In CLS 34: The Panels, M. Gruber, D. Higgins, K. Olsen & T. Wysocki. (eds), 151-66. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Hume, B. & N. Nagy. 2008. Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Theories: Giving and Taking - Phonology. Paper read at Linguistic Society of America, Chicago.

Irwin, P. & N. Nagy. 2007. Bostonians /r/ speaking: A Quantitative look at (R) in Boston. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 13 (2):135-147.

Kang, Y. 2008a. Tensification of voiced stops in English loanwords in Korean. Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics 12:179–192.

Kang, Y. 2008b. The Adaptation of English /s/ in Korean. In Exploration of Korean Language and Linguistics 3:1-14.

Keefe, Susan, & Amado Padilla. 1987. Chicano Ethnicity. Albuquerque, NM: University of
New Mexico Press.

Kendall, T. 2007. Enhancing Sociolinguistic Data Collections: The North Carolina Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 13 (2):15-26.

Kochetov, A. 2006. The role of social factors in the dynamics of sound change: A case study of a Russian dialect. Language Variation and Change 18 (1):99-119. Labov, W. 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. 1984. Field methods of the Project on Linguistic Change and Variation. In Language in Use, Baugh, J. & J. Sherzer (eds), Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Labov, W. 2007. Transmission and diffusion. Language 83: 344-387.

Labov, W., S. Ash, M. Ravindranath, T. Weldon, M. Baranowski & N. Nagy. 2006. Listeners' sensitivity to the frequency of sociolinguistic variables. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected papers from NWAV 34 12 (2):105-29.

Matras, Y. & J. Sakel. 2007. Grammatical borrowing in cross-linguistic perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Myers-Scotton, C. 1993a. Duelling languages: grammatical structure in codeswitching. Clarendon.

Myers-Scotton, C. 1993b. Social Motivations for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford University Press.

Nagy, N. 1994. Lexical change and language contact. Penn Review of Linguistics 18: 117-132.

Nagy, N. 1995. Double or Nothing: Romance Alignment Strategies. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 2 (2):93-102.

Nagy, N. 1996. Language contact and language change in the Faetar speech community. PhD, Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Nagy, N. 1997. Modeling contact-induced language change. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: A Selection of Papers from NWAVE 25 4 (1):399-418.

Nagy, N. 2001. Stress and schwa in Faetar. In Italian Dialects and Phonological Theory, Repetti, L. (ed.), 239-254. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Nagy, N. 2008. Perception and production frequency in R speech. Lab Phon 11, Wellington, New Zealand.

Nagy, N. 2012. Sociolinguistics and Phonology. In R. Bayley, C. Lucas, & R. Cameron. Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press. 624-654.

Nagy, N., Y. Kang, A. Kochetov and J. Walker. 2009. Heritage Languages in Toronto: A New Project. Heritage Language Workshop, University of Toronto, May 7, 2009.

Nagy, N. & H. Blondeau. 1999. Double subject marking in L2 Montreal French. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected Papers from NWAV(E) 27 6 (2):177-188. (.ZIP)

Nagy, N., H. Blondeau & J. Auger. 2003. Second language acquisition and "real" French: An investigation of subject doubling in the French of Montreal Anglophones. Language Variation and Change 15 (1):73-103. (PDF)

Nagy, N. & M. Meyerhoff. 2008a. The social life of sociolinguistics. In Social Lives in Language: Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities, M. Meyerhoff & N. Nagy (eds), Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Nagy, N. & M. Meyerhoff. 2008b. The love that dare not speak its name: The monolingual bias in sociolinguistics. NWAV 37, Houston, TX.

Nagy, N., C. Moisset & G. Sankoff. 1996. On the acquisition of variable phonology in L2. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: (N)WAVES and MEANS 3 (1):111-126.

Nagy, N. & B. Reynolds. 1997. Optimality theory and variable word-final deletion in Faetar. Language Variation and Change 9 (1):37-56.

Oh, J.S., S. Jun, L. Knightly & T. Au. 2003. Holding on to childhood language memory. Cognition 86: B53-B64.

Padgett, J. & M. Tabain. 2005. Adaptive dispersion theory and phonological vowel reduction in Russian. Phonetica 62 (1):14-54.

Polinsky, M. & O. Kagan. 2007. Heritage Languages: In the ‘Wild’ and in the Classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass 1 (5):368–395.

Poplack, S. Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18:581-618.

Poplack, S. & S. Tagliamonte. 2001. African American English in the Diaspora. Oxford: Blackwell. Renaud, J., L. Gingras, S. Vachon, C. Blaser, J.-F. Godin & B. Gagné. 2001. Ils sont maintenant d'ici! Les dix premières années au Québec des immigrants admis en 1989, Collection Études, recherches et statistiques. Québec: les Publications du Québec.

Sanchez, T. 2008. Accountability in morphological borrowing: Analyzing a linguistic subsystem as a sociolinguistic variable. Language Variation and Change 20 (2):225-254.

Sankoff, D. & S. Poplack. 1981. A formal grammar for code-mixing. Papers in Linguistics 14 (1):3-46.

Sankoff, G., N. Nagy, P. Thibault, H. Blondeau, M. Fonollosa, & L. Gagnon. 1997. Variation and the use of discourse markers in a language contact situation. Language Variation and Change 9 (2):191-218.

Shokeir, V. 2007. Uptalk in Southern Ontario English. NWAV 36, Philadelphia.

Suh, E. 2008. The Usage and interpretation of Korean -tul 'Plural' by heritage language speakers. SLRF 2007 Proceedings.

Tagliamonte, S. 2003. Linguistic changes in Canada entering the 21st century. [cited Sept. 1, 2008] http://individual.utoronto.ca/tagliamonte.

Tagliamonte, S. 2006. Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Oxford: Blackwell. Tagliamonte, S. 2008. Directions of Change Project 2007.

Tagliamonte, S. 2005. So who? Like how? Just what? Discourse markers in the conversations of English speaking youth. Journal of Pragmatics 37 (11):1896-1915.

Thomason, S. & T. Kaufman. 1988. Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Timberlake, A. 2004. A reference grammar of Russian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Toronto Public Library. 2006. Languages Centre.

Trudgill, P. 1974. The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: CUP.

Tucker, G.R. 1999. A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

van Coetsem, F. 1988. Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Dordrecht: Foris.

Vietti, A. & L. Spreafico. 2008. Phonetic variation of /r/ in a language contact context: The case of South Tyrol Italian. LabPhon 11, Wellington, NZ.

Vizmuller-Zocco, J. 1993. Sociolinguistics of a Minority Language: Italians in Toronto and Vicinity. Romance Languages Annual: 324-8.

Walker, J. 2008. Form, Function, and Frequency in Phonology: (t/d)-Deletion in Toronto. NWAV 37, Houston.

Walker, J. & M. Hoffman. 2008. Language Contact, Linguistic Variation and Ethnic Identity in Toronto English [cited Sept. 1, 2008]

Zubritskaya, K. 1997. Mechanism of sound change in Optimality Theory. Language Variation and Change 9 (1):121-148.