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Amphoras at WWW sites

Excavations on land
AFRICA: Leptiminus
BLACK SEA: Elizavetovskoe, Panskoe I, Sinope
BRITAIN Paul Tyers Roman Amphoras in Britain, Verulanium, Isle of Wight, Colchester
CANARY ISLANDS
GREECE: Halai, Isthmia, Olynthus, Chios, Corinth
EGYPT: Bir Umm Fawakhir, Eastern desert, Luxor-Farshût Desert Road, Karanis, Various sites
ITALY: Rione Terra, Monte Testaccio, Lugnano Teverina
SPAIN: CEIPAC, Huelva, Seville
SYRIO-PALESTINE: Aqaba, Jordan; Masada, Israel

Underwater excavations
AFRICA: Various Roman wrecks
BLACK SEA: Crimea
CYPRUS: Kyrenia, Paphos
FRANCE: Grand-Congloué, Arles IV, Basses de Can, Madrague de Giens, La Pointe de Lequin
GREECE: Antikythera
ITALY and SICILY: Secca dei Mattoni, Ponza cargo ship, Lake of Albano, Gela, Giglio Porto, Punic Wreck, Palermo
SYRIO-PALESTINE: Caesarea Maritima, Tantura (Tel Dor)
TURKEY: various sites

Miscellaneous references to wine and amphoras

Excavations on land

For a much more complete list of excavation descriptions and reports online, see the Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology Home Page (Sebastian Heath at University of Michigan), under Field projects and Site Specific Reports. The ones here are choosen only for their amphora content.

AFRICA
Leptiminus
report on excavations, including amphora burials, and amphora production (2nd to 5th centuries AD). Image of a jar neck with its stamp.

BLACK SEA
Elizavetovskoe
Translation into English of part of a book by the Soviet scholar, I.B. Brashinskii. Includes a description of amphoras found at the Elizavetovskoe burial site, possibly symbolizing libation, and perhaps even used at funeral feasts.
Panskoe I
Translation into English of an article by S.Iu. Monakhov on this extensive burial ground, describing the use and types of amphoras found: Heraclean, Khersonesan, Chian, "Solokha" I and II, Thasian, Sinopean.
Sinope
Turkish airlines note on Sinope and its history with special reference to amphora potteries. Illustration of a 13th c Sinopean jar. Description of Turco-French survey and subsequent excavation of several kilns, and the stamped jars that were found in them.

BRITAIN
Roman Amphoras in Britain, by Paul Tyers
Home page, with description and table of contents, of part of a book, Roman Pottery in Britain (London: Batsford 1996). Includes an "Introduction to Roman amphoras" and a visual index of amphora types: text descriptions (shape, fabric, capacities, date, origin, distribution etc), a clickable distribution map, and a bibliography for each type, including:
Micaceous `water jars' (British B4), Egyptian `carrot' jars (Camulodunum 184), Dressel 1, Dressel 2-4 (Pseudo-Koan), Baetic oil jars (Dressel 20 and the related `Haltern' and `London 255' jars), Gauloise, Kapitän, Campanian (Mid-Roman Campanian), North African (Byzacena), Pascual 1 (Layetanian), Richborough 527, late (Roman) Rhodian, Spanish `Salazon'.
This site is part of Internet Archaeology, a new online archaeology journal. A registration procedure -- acceptance of copyright terms by giving personal details in return for a password -- is theoretically required to protect copyright.
Verulanium
British-made amphoras attest a local wine industry near St Albans in the 1st c AD.
Isle of Wight
Roman amphoras found in a survey include jars from Italy, Spain, France. Report of the Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report Series.
Colchester
Description of intact burial of 50 BCE containing various domestic goods and amphoras, one Spanish, from Current Archaeology
CANARY ISLANDS
Ecavations on the Island of Lanzarote produced sherds of Roman amphoras reported in a newsbrief in Archaeology 50.3 (1997), as datable from 1-4c BCE from Campania, Baeitca, and Tunisia.

GREECE
Halai in Locris
report on the 1990-91 season, including publication of several amphora fragments from 3rd and 6th centuries AD.
Isthmia
preliminary report on excavations of 1994, specifically on the the pottery dump from older excavations at the site.
Olynthus
Classical and Late Classical houses with storage amphoras for washing water, for mixing cement, and for storage of wine or oil:
Chios
Illustrations of two 4th c BC Chian amphoras can be found with a description of a 1999 field season project in Greece to be conducted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Corinth
Illustration of a coin of Corinth with an amphora and grapes in a presentation from the Smithsonian's National Numismatic Collection on Corinthian coinage as a reflection of life in ancient Greece.

EGYPT
Bir Umm Fawakhir
Report of a survey in 1992-93 by the Oriental Institute of Archaeology at Chicago. Some Gaza amphora fragments were found at this Byzantine town in the eastern desert of Egypt.
Eastern desert
Reports by the Asiut Project, University of Michigan, of Hellenistic finds from many sites (Bir Samut, Wadi Jarahish, Rawd al-Liqah, Bir 'Iayyan, Bir 'Umm Howeytat) including "thickened rim amphorae", and of Roman finds at Wadi Jirf, Wadi Matula, Bir Dunqash, including some Tripolitanian amphoras.
Luxor-Farshût Desert Road Project
Report of desert tracks from the ancient quarries near Thebes to Farshût. Hellenistic amphoras and later Coptic jars were found in 1993-94.
Karanis
An excellent exhibit of food in the ancient world includes shows an amphora of the 1st c. BC from the University of Michigan excavations at Karanis, now in the Kelsey Museum in Ann Arbor Michigan, together with the stamps on its handles.
Various sites in Egypt (1995 season)
Reported in KMT 6:4 KMT Communications are:

ITALY
Rione Terra, Pozzuoli
Two tavernas have been excavated, both with amphoras, one on the Via Ripa, and the other on the Via S. Procolo. Discussion of the use of the jars and some images are given: Via Ripa and Via S. Procolo including Dressel 2-4, Kapitän 1, Dressel 21-22. All 2nd half 1st AD.

Monte Testaccio, Rome
This amazing mountain of discarded amphoras in the centre of Rome is the subject of an extensive, well-illustrated, and well-arranged exhibition, documenting the millions of Dressel 20-23 and other imported olive oil jars, dating, perhaps in two layers, to 1c-mid 2c AD and after mid 2c AD. "Il Monte delle anfore (Monte Testaccio in Roma)", WWW Mostra Testaccio, includes graphics and text, in Italian, Spanish, Catalan, and English. Major exposition of Dressel 20/Baetic amphoras.

Lugnano Teverina, Umbria
amphoras found near this hill town in the excavations of a 1c BC villa at Poggio Gramignano by a joint Italian and American team were used for the fairly casual burial of infants in the 5c AD.

SPAIN
Centro para el Estudio Interprovincial en la Antigüedad Clásica
CEIPAC provides bibliography with abstracts (books) and often full text (articles) of work by the Spanish amphorists. Also much information on Beatic oil jars (Dressel 20), and on their export from sites in Spain. Includes a description of the formation of a Corpus informático del Instrumentum domesticum, an epigraphical database of seals, graffiti, dipinti on common ware from Spain, and its diffusion throughout the Mediterranean.

Huelva, Spain
A paper by Vassiliki Kassianidou on the production of silver in Monte Romero, a silver mine and workshop site near Huelva (possibly ancient Tartaressos) (Papers from the Institute of Archaeology (UCL) 4 (1993) 37). Included are finds of Paleo-Punic amphoras among the sparse pottery of the period of intensive Phoenician trade in silver with Spain. The jars, dated to 7--6c BC, help to date the site.

Seville, Spain
An international congress held in Seville in December 1998 on Baetic Amphoras.

SYRIO-PALESTINE
Aqaba, Jordan
Report of excavation in 1993-94 by Donald Whitcomb describes the finding of a 7c AD amphora kiln, "illustrating the beginnings of industrial production in the early Islamic period."
Masada, Israel
The Name of Herod the Great was found on an amphoras(?), dated to "ca 19 BC". The object is also referred to as a wine "jug" and has no handles preserved.

Underwater excavations

AFRICA
Roman wrecks (one of Punic War date)
The Institute for Exploration mentions a number (5?) of Roman wrecks of varying dates (some dated by their amphoras) discovered by Dr. Robert Ballard's Jason ROV in the Mediterranean off Africa. The oldest dates to ca 100 BC and appears to contain 8 different kinds of amphora. Reported also in the Washington Post, and in Archaeology 50.6 (1997) newbriefs.
Another wreck containing Punic amphoras of the 5th c BC was reported by a commercial company, Odyssey Marine Exploration, which has plans for an archaeological excavation.
BLACK SEA
Crimea
The Underwater Archaeology Research and Training Center of Kiev University and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology joint project: an excellent history of sea-faring and wrecks in the area, illustrated with sketches and photos of local and imported amphoras, including the cargo of another INA project, the Kyrenia wreck. Shows early Hellenistic, Roman, and medieval jars, and information about ships of various periods.
CYPRUS
At Kyrenia
4c BC wreck with a cargo of amphoras, together with 2 later wrecks, documented in the 1981 film "The Ancient Mariners": a review of the film. Now report on the wreck by Susan Katzev (1982) on Cyprus government website.
At Paphos in western Cyprus
Abstract [no longer at scholars press web site] of "Ancient Wreckage Around the Paphos Promontory" by Robert L. Hohlfelder (ASOR report on current excavations 1993--1995) -- describes shipwrecks surveyed in 1994, including one on the Moulia Rocks known to divers as the "Cave of Amphoras," formed by a mass of sherds from 2c BC Rhodian amphoras.

FRANCE
Sites du littoral de la Méditerranée
(Ministry of Culture of France, the Maison des sciences de l'homme, and CNRS). Well-illustrated, with the emphasis on underwater techniques, but there are images and text also about some of the amphora finds:

GREECE
Antikythera
Text of a paper in a US Naval History Symposium by Rob S. Rice on the ca 87 BC wreck off Antikythera. More interested in the instrument of celestial navigation than the amphoras.

ITALY and SICILY
ASSOnet (Archeologia Subacquea e Speleologia subacquea)
includes descriptions of its operations, cave diving, underwater archaeology, and excerpts from articles published in Mondo Sommerso and Archeologia Viva. Of interest for amphora studies:
The Museo Archeologico di Marsala
provides information (and some images) on the La Nave Punica (the Punic Wreck), perhaps from the Carathaginian navy defeated by the Romans at Lilybeo in 241 AD, perhaps a cargo ship. Carried Punic, Greco-Italic and Roman amphoras (and hashish!).
Palermo
the Istituto attivita subacquee at Palermo gives information about underwater archaeology courses and excavations; amphora material mainly from a 12th c CE wreck at San Vito lo Capo, but finds in the "Museo del mare" date also from 3c BCE to 6c CE.

SYRIO-PALESTINE
Caesarea Maritima
A review of a video on the harbor excavation, called "The Search for Herod's Harbor".
Excavations by the University of Maryland, combined Caesarea Expeditions web page.
Tantura Lagoon (port of Tel Dor)
Excavation and Surveys by INA have found seven wrecks in the coast off Israel, some piled 3 deep in different eras. See INA's Virtual Museum of Nautical Archaeology for brief description and bibliography. The three shipwrecks there are shown with full documentation of the excavations, and artefacts, including one wreck of Roman period, one Byzantine (5-6th centuries), and one of the 9th century. The last two include many images of the jars.
TURKEY
Various sites
Description of diving in Turkey on various wrecks (incl Serce Liman, Uluburun etc) and photos of amphoras and other finds from them by a scuba enthusiast.
For the INA excavations of the Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck, the Uluburun Bronze Age wreck, the Bronze Age wreck off Cape Gelidonya, two wrecks of Yassiada, one 4c Roman and one 7c Byzantine, and the Serce Limani 11c Byzantine Wreck, see INA's Virtual Museum of Nautical Archaeology with excellent illustrations of cargos and vessels.

Miscellaneous references to amphoras and wine

Photographs from Delos:
a marble olive press and bench for amphoras, and four amphora stands with another olive press
Wine-making and sales in Roman Egypt:
description of a papyrus, early 2nd AD.
Museum catalogs describing and/or showing wine jars and jugs:
Otago Museum (Athenian bowl, Corinthian oinochoe);
the Derveni bronze krater;
Kelsey Museum, Ann Arbor (Corinthian aryballos, 6c BCE);
Ashmolean Museum (an amphoriskos attributed to the Eretria painter by J. Beazley).
Description of petrographic analysis:
Ian Whitbread at work analysing amphora fragments in 1992 at MIT "Getting to Know a Pot Microscopically."

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